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Biology Quarter 4


Chapter 3 & 4: Biosphere and Ecosystems

Quarter: 4th

NGSS:

LS1.C Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms

 

     3 As matter and energy flow through different organizational levels of living systems, chemical

        elements are recombined in different ways to form different products.

 

LS2.B: Cycles of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems

 

     2 Plants or algae form the lowest level of the food web. At each link upward in a food web, only a small

        fraction of the matter consumed at the lower level is transferred upward, to produce growth and

        release energy in cellular respiration at the higher level. Given this inefficiency, there are generally

        fewer organisms at higher levels of a food web. Some matter reacts to release energy for life

        functions, some matter is stored in newly made structures, and much is discarded. The chemical

        elements that make up the molecules of organisms pass through food webs and into and out of the

        atmosphere and soil, and they are combined and recombined in different ways. At each link in an

        ecosystem, matter and energy are conserved.

 

LS2.C: Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience

 

     1 A complex set of interactions within an ecosystem can keep its numbers and types of organisms   

        relatively constant over long periods of time under stable conditions. If a modest biological or

        physical disturbance to an ecosystem occurs, it may return to its more or less original status (i.e., the

        ecosystem is resilient), as opposed to becoming a very different ecosystem. Extreme fluctuations in

        conditions or the size of any population, however, can challenge the functioning of ecosystems in

        terms of resources and habitat availability.

Possible Sections Covered:

     • 3-2 Energy Flow

     • 3-3 Cycles of Matter

     • 4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem

     • 4-3 Biomes

     • 4-4 Aquatic Ecosystems

Possible Homework:

     Notes to use on Quiz:  3-2, 3-3, 4-2, 4-3, 4-4

     Section Reviews: 3-2, 3-3, 4-2, 4-3, 4-4

Possible Laboratories:

Vocabulary:

Possible Assessments:

Class work/ Guided Practice - Formative

Homework – Formative/Summative

Note Quizzes – Formative

Pop Quizzes – Formative/Summative

Laboratory – Summative

Test - Summative


Chapter 5: Populations

Quarter: 4th

NGSS:

LS2.A: Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems

 

     1 Ecosystems have carrying capacities, which are limits to the numbers of organisms and populations

        they can support. These limits result from such factors as the availability of living and nonliving

        resources and from such challenges such as predation, competition, and disease. Organisms would

        have the capacity to produce populations of great size were it not for the fact that environments and

        resources are finite. This fundamental tension affects the abundance (number of individuals) of

        species in any given ecosystem.

 

LS2.C: Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience

 

     1 Anthropogenic changes (induced by human activity) in the environment—including habitat

        destruction, pollution, introduction of invasive species, overexploitation, and climate change—can

        disrupt an ecosystem and threaten the survival of some species.

Possible Sections Covered:

     • 5-1 How Populations Grow

     • 5-2 Limits to Growth

     • 5-3 Human Population Growth

     • 6-1 A Changing Landscape

Possible Homework:

     Notes to use on Quiz:  5-1, 5-2, 5-3, 6-1

     Section Reviews: 5-1, 5-2, 5-3, 6-1

Possible Laboratories:

Vocabulary:

Possible Assessments:

Class work/ Guided Practice - Formative

Homework – Formative/Summative

Note Quizzes – Formative

Pop Quizzes – Formative/Summative

Laboratory – Summative

Test - Summative


Chapter 15 & 16: Evolution

Quarter: 4th

NGSS:

LS4.B: Natural Selection

 

     1 Natural selection occurs only if there is both (1) variation in the genetic information between

        organisms in a population and (2) variation in the expression of that genetic information—that is, trait

        variation—that leads to differences in performance among individuals.

 

     2 The traits that positively affect survival are more likely to be reproduced, and thus are more common

         in the population.

 

LS4.C: Adaptation

 

     1 Evolution is a consequence of the interaction of four factors: (1) the potential for a species to

        increase in number, (2) the genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual

        reproduction, (3) competition for an environment’s limited supply of the resources that individuals

        need in order to survive and reproduce, and (4) the ensuing proliferation of those organisms that are

        better able to survive and reproduce in that environment.

 

     2 Natural selection leads to adaptation, that is, to a population dominated by organisms that are

        anatomically, behaviorally, and physiologically well suited to survive and reproduce in a specific

        environment. That is, the differential survival and reproduction of organisms in a population that have

        an advantageous heritable trait leads to an increase in the proportion of individuals in future

        generations that have the trait and to a decrease in the proportion of individuals that do not.

 

     3 Adaptation also means that the distribution of traits in a population can change when conditions

        change.

Possible Sections Covered:

     • 15-2 Ideas That Shaped Darwin’s Thinking

     • 15-3 Darwin Presents His Case

     • 16-1 Genes and Variation

     • 16-2 Evolution as Genetic Change

     • 16-3 The Process of Speciation

Possible Homework:

     Notes to use on Quiz:  15-2, 15-3, 16-1, 16-2, 16-3

     Section Reviews: 15-2, 15-3, 16-1, 16-2, 16-3

Possible Laboratories:

     Modeling Adaptation

     Investigating Genetic Diversity in Bacteria

Vocabulary:

Possible Assessments:

Class work/ Guided Practice - Formative

Homework – Formative/Summative

Note Quizzes – Formative

Pop Quizzes – Formative/Summative

Laboratory – Summative

Test - Summative


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